DNA | Estrogen
"JOINCIRCLES enables you to own your own medical data. When your results are ready, I will contact you and we can set a time to go through your results together - this session is included in the price of the test. From there, we can decide which of the healthcare practitioners in our 'Practitioner Circle' who have been trained to interpret these tests, you might need/want to see next. Once you have a plan from your practitioner/s, you can come back and shop your personalised daily nutrition, environment and lifestyle choices. As the medical director, please contact me if you need help choosing the right test and/or practitioner for your needs". Dr Heidi | email@example.com
Did you know that approximately 80% of breast cancers occur in women with no family history? Pretty terrifying, right? Which is why our DNA | Estrogen is a test we recommend for every woman over the age of 18.
Estrogen affects the functioning of several target tissues, and research shows that an increased lifetime exposure to estrogen, along with the production of harmful estrogen metabolites in the liver, are strong risk indicators for developing breast and other estrogen-positive cancers.
DNA | Estrogen looks for gene variants that have been shown to have an impact on how estrogen is metabolised (broken down/detoxified) in your body. The test includes 11 key genes involved in estrogen biosynthesis, estrogen metabolism, and Phase I and Phase II liver detoxification.
The results from this test provide information that can be used to personalise diet, supplement, environment and lifestyle recommendations that can best support and improve how your body metabolises estrogen.
This test is beneficial to both men and women who suffer from a variety of estrogen-dominant conditions, and who have a higher lifetime exposure to estrogens, estrogen metabolites, and other carcinogens. It's also a great test for 18+ year old women who want to know more about how their body processes estrogen before they decide to start taking the oral contraceptive Pill, and for menopausal and postmenopausal women considering HRT.
A note from Dr Heidi
"The DNA | Estrogen test is a test we strongly recommend for all women and some men. It gives insight into any genetic variations you may have on the genes involved in estrogen metabolism and detoxification. We would love everyone, especially women over the age of 18, to do this test. It is a once-off test and you will have the results for life. Improper estrogen detox can lead to estrogen imbalances, estrogen excess and possibly estrogen cancers.
Consider doing a normal sex hormone + a urine hormone metabolites real-time test to get a more comprehensive snapshot of how your body's estrogen biochemistry is functioning. The most comprehensive combo would be: DNA | Health + DNA | Estrogen test, a sex hormones test, and the Urine Hormone Metabolites BIG test. If you’re on a budget, look at doing just the DNA | Estrogen test + the Urine Hormone Metabolites small test".
The science behind your DNA | Estrogen report
Once we receive your DNA sample, we use a process called Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) to copy the DNA in your genes many times over, so that we have ample material with which to analyse your genetic material. We then look for unique DNA sequences in your genes, and if we spot changes from the norm, we mark those as risk factors.
Over the years, we have noticed that people that show variations in the gene markers involved in carcinogen metabolism, metabolism of steroid hormones, and detoxification, often are part of a sub-population of women and men with higher lifetime exposure to estrogens, estrogen metabolites and other carcinogens. By understanding this connection and your unique genetic variability, we can provide a holistic assessment of your health risks and provide advice on how to reduce these risks.
Benefits of a DNA | Estrogen test
Men or women with a strong family history of breast, ovarian, colon or prostate cancer.
Women who suffer from estrogen-dominant conditions such as endometriosis, premenstrual syndrome and uterine fibroid tumours.
Women considering oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy or bio-identical hormone supplementation.
Women who are considering in-vitro fertilisation or who have been diagnosed with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.
Phase I of Estrogen Detoxification in the Liver:
- CYP1A1: A Phase I cytochrome P450 enzyme that converts environmental procarcinogens into reactive intermediates that have carcinogenic effects. It is further involved in the oxidative metabolism of estrogens.
- CYP1B1: Catalyses the 4-hydroxylation of estradiol and active polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and arylamines.
- CYP17A: Catalyses reactions involved in drug metabolism and synthesis of cholesterol, steroids, and other lipids as an integral part of the estrogen metabolism pathway.
- MnSOD: Provides antioxidant activity within the cell, necessary for decreasing oxidative damage caused by reactive estrogen metabolites.
- Phase II of estrogen detoxification in the liver:
- GSTM1: Responsible for the removal of xenobiotics, carcinogens, and products of oxidative stress, which include reactive estrogen metabolites.
- GSTT1: A member of a superfamily of proteins that catalyse the conjugation of reduced glutathione, and is responsible for removal of reactive products of estrogen metabolism.
- COMT: Influences the levels of certain hormones and is involved in the methylation and inactivation of catechol estrogens.
- MTHFR: MTHFR is a key enzyme in the folate metabolism pathway - directing folate from the diet either to DNA synthesis or homocysteine re-methylation. Decreased MTHFR enzyme activity has been associated with increased premenopausal breast cancer risk with long duration of estrogen exposure.
- SULT1A1: Involved in the inactivation of estrogens and bio-activation of heterocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
- NQO1: Quinone Reductase is primarily involved in the detoxification of potentially mutagenic and carcinogenic quinones derived from tobacco smoke, diet and estrogen metabolism.
- Factor V: Factor V Leiden gene mutation is characterised by a poor anticoagulant response to Activated Protein C and an increased risk of venous thromboembolism. This gene is included because estrogen excess or dominance (more estrogen than progesterone) can increase the risk of clotting. Increased estrogen coupled with a factor V mutation can lead to an increased risk of clotting or thrombosis on the contraceptive Pill and on HRT (Hormone Replacement Therapy).
Test sample report
Pair with these Biochemistry Tests
Order these tests to track and measure whether your genetic variations are manifesting in real-time:
DNA| Estrogen: Gene variations associated with a reduced ability to detoxify estrogen, the potential for DNA damage, the risk from environmental carcinogens including the contraceptive Pill and IVF.
Buccal (cheek) lining swab
Average processing time
It may sound like something out of a sci-fi movie, but genetic testing is a powerful health tool that can give you a deep understanding of how your body works.
At the heart of it is the molecule DNA. Every single cell in our bodies – from our heart to skin, blood and bone – contains a complete set of our DNA. This powerful molecule carries our genetic code and determines all manner of traits, from our eye colour to aspects of our personalities and, of course, our health. Interestingly, 99.9% of the DNA from two people is identical. It’s the other 0.1% of DNA code sequences that make us unique.
What are genes?
Genes are segments of DNA that contain the instructions your body needs to make each of the many thousands of proteins required for life. Each gene is comprised of thousands of combinations of ‘letters’ which make up your genetic code. The code gives the instructions to make the proteins required for proper development and function.
What are gene variations?
An example of a genetic variation is that one ‘letter’ may be replaced by another. These variations can lead to changes in the resulting proteins being made. For example, a ‘C’ may be changed to a ‘G’ at a point in the genetic code. When the variation affects only one genetic ‘letter’ it is called a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism, or SNP (pronounced “snip”). Variations can however also affect more than one ‘letter’. Genetic tests look at specific chromosomes, genes or proteins, and the variations that occur within them, to make observations about disease or disease risk, body processes or physical traits.
Are gene variations bad?
In general, variations should not be considered good or bad. Rather, genetic variations are simply slight differences in the genetic code. The key is to know which form of the variation you carry so that you can make appropriate lifestyle choices. And that is the beauty of genetic testing. It can tell you more about the way you're built so that you can tailor your lifestyle to fit your biology.