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ADORA2A

Adenosine receptor activity increases throughout the day as the body generates adenosine, a by-product of energy (ATP) release. ADORA2A also regulates dopamine release - as adenosine levels increase, the stimulatory effect of dopamine declines - facilitating sleep. Caffeine blocks this interaction by increasing the stimulatory effect of dopamine, causing alertness. Variants on ADORA2A increase the stimulatory impact of caffeine.

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